I. The coordinate conjunctions
Separate two words, phrases, or clauses of equal grammatical importance.
Tip: Memorize this list. Some people use the acronym FANBOYS (for, and, etc.). I prefer to memorize the words in groups. Notice how short all the words are; all have only two or three letters.
Example: The pie was delicious, but I burned the rest of the meal.
II. The adverbial conjunctions (or conjunctive adverbs).
The following are adverbs that can be used as conjunctions to join two independent clauses.
|The word's function:|
|addition||furthermore, in addition, again, also, besides, equally important, finally, first, further, in the first place, last, moreover, next, second, still|
|comparison||also, in the same way, likewise, similarly|
|concession||granted, naturally, of course|
|contrast||however, instead, still, at the same time, despite that, even so, for all that, in contrast, in spite of, nevertheless, notwithstanding, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, regardless|
|emphasis||certainly, indeed, in fact, of course|
|example or illustration||after all, as an illustration, even, for example, for instance, in conclusion, indeed, in fact, in other words, in short, it is true, of course, namely, specifically, that is, to illustrate, thus, truly|
|summary||therefore, all in all, altogether, as has been said, finally, in brief, in conclusion, in other words, in particular, in short, in simpler terms, in summary, on the whole, that is, to put it differently, to summarize|
|time sequence||after a while, again, also, at last, at length, at that time, besides, earlier, eventually, finally, formerly, further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, in the past, at last, lately, meanwhile, moreover, next, now, presently, second, shortly, simultaneously, soon, still, subsequently, then, thereafter|
III. Correlative Conjunctions
Some conjunctions work in pairs, joining grammatically equal expressions.
Polonius said, "Neither a borrower nor a lender be."
Here's a list:
|both . . . and
not only . . . but also
not . . . but
either . . .or
|neither . . . nor
whether . . . or
as . . . as
IV. The subordinate conjunctions
A subordinate conjunction turns an independent clause into a dependent clause, i.e. into an expression of less grammatical importance in the sentence.
Common Subordinate Conjunctions
as long as
in order that
As long as you're hone early, why don't you begin dinner?
She works hard so that she will get good grades.