Annotated Bibliography

Abbot, Chris and Len Masterman, "Working Paper on Literacy No. 2", Centre for Literacy of Quebec, 1997.

Ainlay, Stephen C., "Presidential Inauguration Address," Union College, September 16, 2006.

Akera, Atsushi, David Hemmendinger, J. Douglass Klein, Frederik Nebeker and Aristotle Tympas, "Historical Visions: Enhancing Engineering Education through the History of Technology," panel session, 38th ASEE,/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, October 22-25, 2008.

American Association of Colleges and Universities, “Liberal Outcomes, A Preliminary Report on Student Achievement in College,” 2005.

American Council of Learned Societies, Liberal Arts College in American Higher Education: Challenges and Opportunities, ACLS Occasional Paper, No. 59 (2005).

Ausubel, Jesse H., and H. Dale Langford, Technological Trajectories and the Human Environment, National Academy Press, 1997.

Balanced College Concept,” from the Encyclopedia of Union College History, Wayne Somers, ed. (2003), pp. 83-88.

Balmer, Robert and J. Douglass Klein, "Engineering, Liberal Arts, and Technological Literacy in Higher Education," Technology and Society Magazine, IEEE, Volume 26, Issue 4, Winter 2007, 23 - 28.
(linked version is from 2006 ASEE presentation)

Barash, David P., “C.P. Snow: Bridging the Two-Cultures Divide,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, November 25, 2005.

Barke, Richard, Eliesh O'Neil Lane and Kenneth Knoespel, 2001, “Sustainability and the Convergence of Engineering and Liberal Arts Education.” 

Barke, Richard,  Eliesh O'Neil Lane and Kenneth Knoespel, Georgia Institute of Technology, “Shaping The Future of American University Education, or What Does it Mean to Call Engineering a Liberal Art?”  2001
Conceiving engineering as a liberal art indicates that engineering knowledge is required not only for a specialized career path but also increasingly important for active participation in citizenship. This idea challenges universities to rethink fundamental notions of both the liberal arts and engineering.

Includes these References:

Florman, A. (1987) The Civilized Engineer. New York, St. Martin's Press.

Mitcham, C. (1999) "Why the public should participate in technical decision making," in Democratising Technology, R. Schomberg (ed.) The Netherlands: International Centre for Human and Public Affairs.

Bollinger, Lee C., President of Columbia University, "2006 Commencement Address", May 17, 2006.
"Expertise gives us a sense of self-importance. Familiar areas become comfortable. And we can lock ourselves into intellectual cages of our own making that inhibit us from exploring fields outside our own." 

Bordogna, Joseph, Fromm, Eli and, Ernst, Edward W. "An Integrative and Holistic Engineering Education," Journal of Science Education and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 191-198. Sep., 1995.  http://www.jstor.org/stable/40188503 Accessed: 23/07/2010 17:33

Brainard, Jeffrey, "Report Urges Sweeping Changes in Engineering Education," Chronicle of Higher Education, December 13, 2007.

Brainard, Jeffrey, "A Gift to Princeton will Foster Collaboration of Engineering and Liberal-Arts Students," Chronicle of Higher Education, April 7, 2008.

Bramble, Judith, “Reshaping Their Views: Science as Liberal Arts,” New Directions for Teaching and Learning. No. 103, Fall 2005
General-education science courses should provide students with a foundation of knowledge about how the natural world works, a clear understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, and an appreciation for the relationship between science and society. This chapter suggests a variety of approaches to engage students in their own learning and, with appropriate reflection, help them construct more scientific worldviews.

Brockman, John, ed., The New Humanists: Science at the Edge, (2003)
Something radically new is in the air: new ways of understanding physical systems, new ways of thinking about thinking that call into question many of our basic assumptions. A realistic biology of the mind, advances in physics, electricity, genetics, neurobiology, engineering, the chemistry of materials—all are challenging basic assumptions of who and what we are, of what it means to be human. The arts and the sciences are again joining together as one culture, the third culture. Those involved in this effort—scientists, science-based humanities scholars, writers—are at the center of today's intellectual action.

Bugliarello, George, “A New Trivium and Quadrivium,” Polytechnic University, Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society (Vol. 23, No. 2, April 2003)     Alternative link.

Includes these references:
     Florman, A. (1996) The Existential Pleasures of Engineering. New York: St. Martin's Press.
     Segerstrale, U. (Ed.). (2000). Beyond the Science Wars. The Missing Discourse about Science and Society.
        Albany: State University of New York Press.

Cass, Aaron G. and Chris S. T. Fernandes, "Simulated Conference Submissions: A Technique to Improve Student Attitudes about Writing," 38th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, October 22-25, 2008.
Based on results of a required interdisciplinary research seminar taught as part of Union College's general education program.

Christ, Carol T., President, Smith College, “Innovation and Tradition in American Liberal Education,”

Christ, Carol T., President, Smith College “Science, politics, and speaking out,” SAQ Online, Summer 2006
“I believe strongly that scientific literacy is a critical element of a liberal arts education. It surprises me how frequently people use the term “liberal arts” to mean the humanities. People often ask me, for example, whether Smith’s development of science and engineering means that it will abandon the liberal arts, as if the sciences were not liberal arts. Indeed, I have argued that in today’s world, we should regard engineering as a liberal art. I have twice taught a course on science and literature with Professor Marjorie Senechal, precisely to encourage more conversation across what the physicist and novelist C. P. Snow called the two cultures.”

Chrucky, Andrew, "Philosophy of Liberal Education" (online bibliography)

Chrucky, Andrew, "The Aim of Liberal Education," DiText, September 1, 2003.

Clough, G Wayne Clough, President, Ga. Tech., State of the Institute address from October, 2007.

Connor, W. R. (Director, The National Humanities Center),  "Liberal Arts Education in the Twenty-First Century,"  (Keynote remarks to the American Academy for Liberal Education), May 225, 1998.

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Design for the other 90%, (2007).

Cronon, William, “Only Connect…: The Goals of a Liberal Education,” The American Scholar, Volume 67, No. 4, Autumn 1998. 

Cubin, Larry, "'The Great Reappraisal of Pubic Education': The 1952 Charles P. Steinmetz Memorial Lecture," American Journal of Education. November 2003, 3-31.

Dalai Lama (2005). The Universe in a Single Atom: The Convergence of Science and Spirituality. (New York: Morgan Road Books).

Dewey, John, How We Think, D.C. Heath, 1910.  Digitized by Google.

Drexler, K. Eric, Engines of Creation: The Coming Age of Nanotechnology, 1986.

Duderstadt, James J., "Engineering for a Changing World: A Roadmap to the Future of Engineering Practice, Research, and Education," The Millennium Project, The University of Michigan, 2008.
"[This Report] considers the implications for engineering ... as a discipline (similar to physics or mathematics), possibly taking its place among the “liberal arts” characterizing a 21st-century technology-driven society ..."

Epstein, David, “The Technology Mosaic,” Inside Higher Ed, May 25, 2006
Harvard will add 30 faculty members to the 70 already in the Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences.  Perhaps most importantly, as Lawrence H. Summers, president of Harvard said in a statement:
 “It marks our recognition of the profound importance of technology and applied sciences for every aspect of our society.”  … The new school of engineering will remain within the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, where Harvard hopes the new school will be the source of interdisciplinary work. “Engineering is becoming a liberal art,” said Michael Rutter, an engineering spokesperson at Harvard. “It’s much more broadly connected with law, finance, economics.”

Farrell, Jr., Victor E, "Can the Liberal Arts be Saved?" Inside Higher Ed., February 11, 2008.

Gaede Institute for the Liberal Arts – Conversations on the Liberal Arts

Gaede Institute for the Liberal Arts, Vocation, Vocationalism, and the Liberal Arts, The Fourth Annual Conversation on the Liberal Arts February 6-7, 2004.

Goldberg, D. E. The missing basics & other philosophical reflections for the transformation of engineering education.  In Grasso, D. (Ed.), The future of engineering education and practice.  (PhilSci Archive 00004551)

Goldberg, D. E. (2009). Playing well with others in a creative era [ppt presentation]

Grasso, Domenico, "Engineering a Liberal Education," Prism, November 2002, p. 76.

Grasso, Domenico, "Engineering and the Human Spirit," American Scientist, v. 92, n. 3, May-June 2004, 206-208.

Grasso, Domenico, "The Value of Things to Come," review of Human-Built World: How to Think about Technology and Culture, by Thomas P. Hughes (2004), Science, September 10, 2005, p. 1568-69.

Grasso, Domenico, "Is it Time to Shut Down Engineering Colleges," Inside Higer Ed, September 23, 2005.

"Faced with the increasingly complex design challenges of the 21st century — an era where resources of every kind are reaching their limit, human populations are exploding, and global-warming related environmental catastrophe beckons — engineers need to grow beyond their traditional roles as problem-solvers to become problem-definers."

Grasso, Domenico and Melody Brown Burkins (Eds.), Holistic Engineering Education: Beyond Technology. (New York: Springer, 2010)

Grasso, Domenico and David Martinelli, “Holistic Engineering,” The Chronicle Review, March 16, 2007.
“Pursuing the holistic concept of the ‘unity of knowledge’ will yield a definition of engineering more fitting for the times ahead.”

Grasso, Domenico and Joseph J. Helble, "Holistic Engineering and Educational Reform," presented at the IEEE conference on Meeting the Growing Demand for Engineers and Their Educators 2010-2020, 9-11 November 2007, Munich, Germany.

Grasso, Domenico, Melody Brown Burkins, Joseph Helble, David Martinelli, "Dispelling the Myths of Holistic Engineering,"  PE Magazine, August/September, 2008.

Gregorian, Vartan, “Colleges Must Reconstruct the Unity of Knowledge,” 2004

Halber, Deborah, “CMRAE [Center for Materials Research in Archaeology and Ethnology] scientists at MIT bring engineering to liberal arts,” MIT News Office, September 12, 2001.
Lechtman, who graduated from Vassar with a degree in physics and later studied art history, noted that there is an ever-widening gap between the sciences and the humanities, with few students these days immersing themselves in both. She and her colleagues hope to help bring the two back together. "In a very small way, we may make a difference by opening doors, opportunities and ideas to young people," she said. "This is a modest way of incorporating engineering into their studies and pursuits in a way that is natural, accessible and challenging."

Hartley, Matthew, “’There Is No Way without a Because’: Revitalization of Purpose at Three Liberal Arts Colleges,” The Review of Higher Education, Fall 2003, Volume 27, No. 1, pp. 75-102

Halford, Bethany, “Engineering for Everyone,” PRISM, v. 14, no. 4, 2004.

Hazzard, George W., “Engineering as a Liberal Education,” Liberal Education, 57, 4, 463-67, Dec 71

Illinois Foundry for Innovation in Engineering Education (iFoundry)

Jackson, Shirley Ann, "Engineering and the Liberal Arts," presented at Designing the Future: A Summit on Engineering Education Smith College, Northampton, MA, March 31, 2001.

Jewell, Thomas and John Spinelli, "Globalization of the Union College Engineering Programs," 38th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, October 22-25, 2008.

Johansson, Frans, The Medici Effect: Breakthrough Insights at the Intersection of Ideas, Concepts & Cultures. (Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press), 2004.

Kimball, Bruce A. Orators & Philosophers: A History of the Idea of Liberal Education, 1995
This prize-winning book provides a cogent study of the historical evolution of the idea of liberal education.

Kimball, Bruce A., “Liberal versus Useful Education: Reconsidering the Contrast and its Lineage,” Teachers College Record, v. 87, no. 4, (Summer, 1986), 575-587.

Kimball, Bruce A., Interpreting the Liberal Arts: Four Lectures on the History and Historiography of the Liberal Arts.  Monograph Series,  Liberal Arts Institute, Westmont College, Santa Barbara, 2003.

Kimball, Roger, "'The Two Cultures' Today," The New Criterion (online), February, 2004.

Klein, J. Douglass, "Symposium on Engineering and Liberal Education," poster presented at the 2008 Annual Meetings of the Council of Colleges of Arts and Sciences, Portland, OR, Nov. 12-15. 2008.

Knoespel, Kenneth, Richard Barke, Eliesh O'Neal, “Thoughts on Building a New Model, or What Does it Mean to Call Engineering a Liberal Art?” Georgia Institute of Technology,”  n.d.
There are doubts about the university's willingness or ability to address large-scale social problems such as reconciling technology-driven economic development with sustainability, social justice, and public participation.

Koen, Billy, “An Engineer’s Search for Universal Method,” Engineering, Technology and Culture Interdisciplinary Lecture Series. University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana.2007.  Click here to hear the Lecture

Krupczak, Jr., John J., David Ollis, Russell Pimmel, Roger Seals, Greg Pearson, and Norman Fortenberry, Panel:  “The Technological Literacy of Undergraduates: Identifying the Research Issues,” 2005 FIE, October 19 – 22, 2005, Indianapolis, IN, T3B-1

Krupczak, Jr., John J., Hope College, “Using Insights From Non-Engineers to Improve Introduction to Engineering Via Functional Analysis,” ASEE 2007.

Lewis, Harry R., Excellence Without a Soul: Does Liberal Education Have a Future? PublicAffairs 2006.

Lewin, Douglas, “Engineering Philosophy: The Third Culture?Leonardo, Vol. 16, No. 2. (Spring, 1983), pp. 127-132.
“To establish the principle of engineering as a problem-solving philosophy with creative overtones and in so doing to lay the essential foundations of design tools such as modeling, simulation, computation, decision theory and communication skills."

Liberal Education Division of ASEE annual programs

2004 program
2005 program
2009 program

Liberal Education Division Program, “Integrating Engineering and the Liberal Arts,” ASEE Meeting, Montreal, 6 June, 2002.
Mikic, Borjana, (Smith College) and Sarah Pfatteicher (University of Wisconsin), moderators; A Panel Discussion with:
Bruce Keith, (United States Military Academy)
Robert Martello (Olin College)
Wade Robison (Rochester Institute of Technology)
Kenneth Van Treuren and Steven Eisenbarth (Baylor University) Engineering Education in a Liberal Arts Environment at Baylor University

Lightman, Alan, Daniel Sarewitz and Christina Desser, Living with the Genie: Essays on Technology and the Quest for Human Mastery, Island Press, 2003.

Matheson, Kathy, "Liberal Arts Schools Embrace Engineering," The Boston Globe, Nov. 3. 2007.

Miller, Richard K. “Olin College and the Future of Engineering,” in Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum, 11th Edition, by Laurence Behrens and Leonard Rosen, Pearson Longman, New York. January 2010

Miller, Richard K. Forward, in Holistic Engineering Education: Beyond Technology, 1st edition, by Domenico Grasso and Melody Brown Burkins, Eds., Springer. 2010.

Miller, Richard K. “The New Liberal Education,” (adapted from invited plenary address), Proc. of the 2008 Baker Forum: What Does it Mean to be a Polytechnic University in the 21st Century?, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA. May 2-4, 2008.

Moseley, Caroline, “He’s No Ivory Tower Engineer,” Princeton Weekly Bulletin 2/15/99

Mulrine, Anna, “The Real World,” ASEE Prism, Summer 2005
Six Smith College grads recount their experiences during their first year as engineers. And they respond to comments made by Harvard President Larry Summers.

National Academy of Engineering, The Engineer of 2020: Visions of Engineering in the New Century, National Academies Press, 2004.

National Academy of Engineering, Educating the Engineer of 2020: Adapting Engineering Education to the New Century, 2005. 

Neely, Paul, “The Threats to Liberal Arts Colleges,” in Distinctively American: The Residential Liberal Arts Colleges, S. Koblik and S.R. Graubard, eds.  Daedalus, Winter, 1999.

Nordman, Alfred, rapporteur, Converging Technologies – Shaping the Future of European Societies.  (European Commission Research), 2004.

Nye, David E., Technology Matters: Questions to Live With, MIT Press, 2006.

Ollis, David F., Kathryn A. Neeley, Heinz C. Luegenbiehl, Liberal Education in Twenty-First Century Engineering: Responses to ABET/EC 2000 Criteria, WPI Studies vol. 23, 2004.

O'Neal, Jr., J. Ben, "The Humanities and Their Effect On Engineering Education," IEEE Communications Magazine, December 1990, 30-35.
Includes these references:

  • B. Kuklick, “The Professionalization of the Humanities,” Applying the Humanities, Plenum, 1985.

  • J. Dewey, “Challenge to Liberal Thought,” Fortune, Aug. 1944.

  • R. N. Bellah, “The Humanities and Social Vision,” Applying the Humanities, D. Callahan. A. L. Caplan, and B. Jennings, eds., Plenum, 1985.

  • C. P. Steinmetz, “The Value of the Classics in Engineering Education,” an address delivered to various engineering groups in 1913 and reprinted in Engineering Education Essays for English, R. P. Baker, ed., London: John Wiley and Sons, 1919.

  • E. L. Boyer and A. Levine, “A Quest for Common Learning," Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1981.

Pascarella, Ernest T., Gregory C. Wolniak, Ty M. Cruce, and Charles F. Blaich, “Do Liberal Arts Colleges Really Foster Good Practices in Undergraduate Education?” Center for the Inquiry on the Liberal Arts, Wabash College, January/February 2004, Volume 45, No 1.
This study estimated the net effects of liberal arts colleges on 19 measures of good practices in undergraduate education grouped into seven categories.

Paris, David C. and Bruce A. Kimball, "Liberal Education: An Overlapping Pragmatic Consensus." Journal of Curriculum Studies. (Spring 2000), pp. 143–158.

Petroski, Henry, Invention by Design: How Engineers Get from Thought to Thing. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996.

Petroski, Henry, The Pencil: A History of Design and Circumstance. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990.

Princeton University, “Engineering as Liberal art: Dividing lines between disciplines diminish,” EQuad, Spring, 1999. 
“It is becoming as important for liberal arts students to be technologically capable and computer savvy as it is for engineers to be knowledgeable of economics and politics.   A well-rounded education increasingly must embrace both technical and liberal arts components. The divisions between disciplines continue to blur as the world becomes smaller and smaller.”

Quantitative Literacy Resource Guide, St. Olaf College, “The New Liberal Arts Program: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 1980-1992
A retrospective review of the "New Liberal Arts Program" of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation drawn from a variety of internal summative reports. These notes do not represent a complete summary of the program, but merely a selection of ideas relevant to quantitative literacy.

Includes these References:

  • White, Stephen P. The New Liberal Arts. Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 1981.
  • Koerner, James D. "The New Liberal Arts Program: A Status Report. New York, NY: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation," 1984.
  • Goldberg, Samuel, (Editor). The New Liberal Arts Program: A 1990 Report. New York, NY: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 1990.
  • Truxal, John G. The New Liberal Arts: Educational Materials. Stony Brook, NY: State University of New York, Department of Technology and Society., 1992.
  • Ames, Oakes. The New Liberal Arts Program: An Evaluation for The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.  Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 1993.

Redden, Elizabeth Redden, “Interdisciplinarity and the Science Classroom,” Inside Higher Ed, Oct. 29, 2007
About 120 provosts, deans and academic officers met in Washington late last week for a highly focused conference on “Promoting the Liberal Sciences: Science as Liberal Education,” sponsored by the American Conference of Academic Deans and the Phi Beta Kappa Society.                         Program

Reinhold, Barbara, Director, Smith Executive Education for Women (interview), “Engineering as a Liberal Art,” 2004

Rikakis, Thanassis. "Towards a Post-Disciplinary Liberal Education", 3rd Symposium on Engineering and Liberal Education (2010), Union College, Schenectady, NY. 4 June 2010

Rikakis, Thanassis. "Innovative Faculty Evaluation Criteria for Incentivizing High-Impact Interdisciplinary Collaboration", 39th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, San Antonio, TX. 2009

Rikakis, T., A. Spanias, H. Sundaram, and Jiping He. "An Arts, Sciences and Engineering Education and Research Initiative", Proc IEEE FIE 2006,  San Diego, CA. Oct 2006

Rochester Institute of Technology, Unlikely partners curriculum.

Roco, Mihail C. and William Simms Bainbridge, National Science Foundation, Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance. (Arlington, VA), 2002. 

Schachterle, Lance, Assistant Provost, WPI, “A Liberal Education for the 2000’s,” 1997 Frontiers In Education Conference

Schachterle, Lance, WPI, “Liberal Education: Designing Lives and Careers Anew,” Symposium on Technology Communication and Culture, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN - March 2-3, 1998

Schield, Milo, “Making Science a Core Liberal Art for the 21st Century,” January 2005

Schumacher, E. F., Small is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered, Harper and Rowe, 1973.

Sjursen, Harold P., Polytechnic University, “The Role of a Center for Liberal Arts in Engineering Education: the Engineer of 2020,” Global J. of Engng. Educ., Vol.10, No.2.

Sjursen, Harold P., Polytechnic University, “Engineering as Philosophical Ethics,” Global J. of Engng. Educ., Vol.10, No.2.

Smith College, Picker Engineering Program, STRATEGIC PLAN, 2001
Vision: Smith's Picker Engineering Program will be an exemplary program of national stature, emphasizing a unity of knowledge across all disciplines. The program will be marked by faculty excellence and innovation in both scholarship and engineering education, with an emphasis on students' active participation in the learning process. Graduates will be confident and creative women who bridge the traditional boundaries between the sciences and humanities as leaders in both the profession of engineering and in society as a whole. As critical thinkers and socially responsible decision-makers, they will help to engineer a sustainable future for the global community.

Snow, C. P., The Two Cultures, Cambridge University Press, 1993; first published 1959.

Sorum, Christina E., “The Problem of Mission: A Brief Survey of the Changing Mission of the Liberal Arts,” in Liberal Arts College in American Higher Education: Challenges and Opportunities, ACLS Occasional Paper, No. 59 (2005), pp, 26-39.

Steinmetz, Charles P, “The Value of the Classics in Engineering Education,” an address delivered to various engineering groups in 1913 and reprinted in Engineering Education Essays for English, R. P. Baker, ed., London: John Wiley and Sons, 1919.

Sullivan, William, "Vocation: Where Liberal and Professional Education Meet,"  The Fourth Annual Conversation on the Liberal Arts, The Gaede Institute,  2004.

Union College, Symposium on Engineering and Liberal Education, proceedings of the Symposium, May 9-10, 2008.

Wabash College, Center of Inquiry in the Liberal Arts 
The mission of the Center of Inquiry in the Liberal Arts is to explore, test, and promote liberal arts education. The Center seeks to ensure that the nature and value of liberal arts education is widely understood and to reestablish the central place of the liberal arts in higher education.

Wilson, Edward O., Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf), 1998.  

Winchester, Ian, “Engineering as a Liberal Art,” originally written as a talk to the Schulich School of Engineering in the fall of 1996, University of Calgary. Revised May 26, 1997 

Workshop of Philosophy and Engineering, 2007 Conference in Delft, Netherlands.  Click here for Abstracts.

Wulf, William, quoted in “The Academical Village in the Internet Age,” by Anne Bromley, Inside UVA Online, Nov. 19-Dec. 2, 1999.
“The biggest change universities need to make now, according to Wulf, is breaking down barriers between engineering and the humanities. ‘What is it that identifies humans? The use of tools. For that reason, perhaps engineering is the most human of studies. ... Maybe we should teach engineering as a liberal art, and maybe a piece of every literate person's experience should be to create a useful artifact that improves life, including something as important as communication,’ he said.”

Wunsch, A. David, “Electrical Engineering for the Liberal Arts: Radio and Its History,” IEEE Transactions on Education, Vol. 41, No. 4, November 1998, page 320

contact J. D. Klein, Dean of Interdisciplinary Studies, Union College

© 2007-10 Union College; last revised August 15, 2010