Start of the Logging Era in the Adirondacks.
The Mohawk & Hudson Railroad, the first railroad in New York and one of the first railroads in the country, opens on August 9, running between Albany and Schenectady. As railroads expand in the next decades, the threat of forest fires from sparks and engine activity grows.
Logging begins on Moose River Plains.
George Perkins Marsh publishes 'Man and Nature,' arguing that deforestation led to desertification. The best -selling book will raise awareness of environmental issues and fuel the conservation movement
Verplanck Colvin is commissioned by the New York State Legislature to survey the Adirondacks and begins warning of dangers to the watershed posed by logging.
Apperson born on April 6th in Chilhowie, Virginia.
The New York State Legislature votes to remove all state-owned land in the Adirondacks from public sale.
The New York State Legislature votes to create the Forest Preserve, protecting state-owned lands in the region from being sold and keeping them as "wild forest lands." The State Forestry Commission is created to manage the Forest Preserve.
Apperson’s mother Ellen Victoria Hull Apperson dies.
The Adirondack State Park is created. Originally 2.8 million acres, it included both private land and the state-owned Forest Preserve. It was meant to define the area where New York State should focus on acquiring more land for the Forest Preserve.
Governor Roswell P. Flower proposes the "Cutting Law" allowing the State Forestry Commission to sell trees on Forest Preserve Land. A two-year-long drought hits the Northeast.
In response to public fears about the watershed, David McClure proposes a constitutional amendment to prohibit logging on State land. Article VII, Section 7, known as the "Forever Wild" amendment, is unanimously approved at the state Constitutional Convention and voted into the Constitution by residents later that year. John S. Apperson, Jr. enrolls in Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College (now Virginia Tech).
Apperson withdraws from college after completing his Sophomore year.
Apperson begins working as a foreman for the Marion & Rye Valley Railroad.
Forest fires become a serious problem in the Park. Apperson moves to Schenectady, begins working as an electrician.
Adirondacks lead the nation in paper production.
Fire destroys 600,000 acres of Adirondack forest. The International Paper Company builds a dam and penstock at the Lake George outlet, replacing prior natural structures.
Apperson begins employment at General Electric as an engineer. Apperson shares apartment with General Electric electrical engineer Claude W. Place at 118 Park Avenue in Schenectady.
Apperson makes a skate sail from muslin and bamboo poles.
US Forest Service is created as an agency of the US Department of Agriculture.
Apperson begins weekly visits to Lake George.
The non-profit National Conservation Commission is established. Intense summer drought strikes the Adirondacks. Summer and fall fires, many caused by railroads, burn more than 368,000 acres of the Park. Apperson completes his skate sail design, the “Schenectady Sail,” which utilizes spruce spars. Paul Schaefer born on September 13th in Rotterdam, New York.
Forest, Fish and Game laws are amended adding guidelines for fire control. Apperson begins shore riprapping of Dollar Island at Lake George to reduce wave erosion.
Apperson urges Lake George Association to engage in the Lake George water level regulation issue. Apperson urges Gov. Horace White to address squatter problem at Lake George.
Apperson and Irving Langmuir meet at General Electric.
Congress passes the Weeks Act to acquire lands that conserve watersheds and forests. Apperson and Irving Langmuir summit Mt. Marcy on skis.
New York State Special Legislative Committee reports on the regulation of water level of Lake George.
Apperson begins work with Gov. Al Smith to fund riprapping on Lake George islands. Apperson attends New York State Constitutional Convention, and becomes friends with Louis Marshall.
A bond issue of $7.5 million supports 245,000-acre addition to the Forest Preserve. Apperson gains support of D & H Railroad in using its crews to riprap Lake George islands.
New York State begins funding the riprapping of Lake George islands. Apperson provides his personal barge and boat to assist in Lake George island riprapping. Apperson undertakes restoration of landslide damage on Dome Island in Lake George. Apperson and Bess and Albert MacCarthy summit Whiteface Mountain on skis (Feb).
The number of fire towers in the Adirondacks increases to 52. Apperson is infected during the 1918 Flu Pandemic, escapes from the hospital and flees to Dollar Island on Lake George to recover.
Conservation Commissioner George Pratt urges International Paper to lower Lake George water level to reduce island damage (21 May). The Conservation Commission wins a court injunction restraining International Paper's use of flashboards at the outlet of Lake George (10 Jun). International Paper and the Conservation Commission produce an agreement on the water level regulation of Lake George (7 Oct). Apperson begins discussing American Chestnut decline at Dome Island, Lake George.
Apperson joins the Lake George Association. Apperson, Irving Langmuir, G. Hall Roosevelt, and William Dalton purchase the Lake View Hotel property on Huddle Bay of Lake George. Apperson names his portion of the Lake View Hotel property “Camp Chilhowie”.
Apperson and Warwick Carpenter expose presale timbering, alleging collusion between the forestry industry and the State Conservation Commission.
The Albany Chapter of the Adirondack Mountain Club is established. Apperson becomes an Adirondack Mountain Club charter member and is appointed to its Conservation Committee. Apperson takes up residence at the Mohawk Club in Schenectady.
Apperson advocates the creation of a Lake George Park. Apperson is appointed to New York State Association Committee on State Park Planning. Apperson et al. “kidnap” Gov. Al Smith for tour of Lake George area. Gov. Al Smith supports New York State acquisition of NW Bay and Tongue Mountain at Lake George. The legislature appropriates $75,000 to purchase Tongue Mountain peninsula on Lake George. The Lake George Association strongly opposes any plan for a Lake George Park. Apperson and Langmuir begin shooting films.
The federal Weeks Law is amended to permit forest purchase for timber and stream-flow protection.
The Lake Placid Club introduces downhill ski racing to the Adirondacks. The state legislature appropriates $55,000 to purchase lands at Lake George Battlefield and Tongue Mountain.
The amendment to build the Whiteface Memorial Highway is approved. Apperson purchases his first ChrisCraft boat, naming it “Article 7, Section 7”.
Apperson and associates purchase the Palmyra Property. Apperson and associates found the Mohawk Valley Hiking Club.
Apperson joins the Association for the Protection of the Adirondacks. Apperson publishes “Analysis of Tree Cutting Amendment, Improperly Called Reforestation Amendment”. Proposed constitutional amendments allowing the cutting of firewood on the Forest Preserve are defeated.
Construction of the Whiteface Mountain Memorial Highway begins. Gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt expands the “Blue Line” of the Adirondack Park to 5.6 million acres, in order to include Lake George, Sacandaga Reservoir, and parts of Lake Champlain. Schaefer meets Apperson.
The III Olympic Winter Games are held at Lake Placid, New York. Irving Langmuir wins the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
The New York State Attorney General finds that roads built for fire suppression do not violate constitutional protection of the Forest Preserve. The New York State Conservation Council is founded, with special interest in oversight of legislative actions.
The New York State Assistant District Attorney declares that International Paper does not have the right to use Lake George as a “mill pond”. Apperson and Irving Langmuir incorporate the Forest Preserve Association of New York State. Apperson publishes his “Tragic Truth About Erosion” pamphlet on soil erosion, with 23,000 copies circulated. Schaefer acquires land on St. David’s Lane, Niskayuna, NY from Henry G. Reist. Schaefer completes construction of 897 St. David’s Lane. Schaefer and Carolyn Kesseberg marry.
Apperson unsuccessfully urges Conservation Department Commissioner Lithgow Osborne to add Dome Island on Lake George to the Forest Preserve. Apperson, Irving Langmuir, Robert Marshall et al. oppose Civilian Conservation Corps work in the Forest Preserve.
Apperson publishes a pamphlet on man-made erosion in the Adirondacks. Apperson and T. F. Malone found the New York State Trails Conference, Inc.
Schaefer appointed to head the Adirondack Committee of The Wilderness Society by Bob Marshall.
Constitutional Convention recodifies Article VII, Section 7 to Article XIV, Section 1. Apperson renames his inboard ChrisCraft “Art XIV, Sec 1”.
Apperson purchases Dome Island.
The New York State constitution is amended to allow 20 miles of ski trails 80’ wide on Whiteface Mountain. Apperson publishes the pamphlet “Lake George: A Mill Pond”. Apperson is appointed to the Adirondack Mountain Club Committee on Education, Information and Publications.
New York State sues System Properties, Inc., owners of International Paper, charging misregulation of Lake George water levels. This case becomes known as the “Lake George Trespass Lawsuit”. Apperson, Irving Langmuir, and associates become interveners in the Lake George Trespass Lawsuit.
Apperson and Irving Langmuir form the Lake George Protective Association.
Schaefer is prompted by George Marshall to make an Adirondack topographical map. Apperson resigns from the Lake George Association. The Adirondack Moose River Committee to fight Higley Mountain dam established.
The New York State constitution is amended to build a ski center at Gore Mountain. Schaefer and associates found the Friends of the Forest Preserve.
Adirondack League Club initiates court proceedings against Panther Mountain Dam. Justice Andrew Ryan decides in favor of the International Paper in the Lake George Trespass Lawsuit. Assistant District Attorney appeals decision in the Lake George Trespass Lawsuit.
The New York State Supreme Court unanimously upholds the verdict against the Black River Regulating District on the Panther Mountain Dam.
Schaefer begins a 3 year tenure on the Joint Legislative Committee on River Regulations for the New York State Assembly. The Great Appalachian Storm of 1950 hits in November causing significant numbers of trees to fall in the Adirondacks. This storm was also known as the "Big Blowdown" or the "land hurricane."
Apperson and New York State win their appeal against International Paper in the Lake George Trespass Lawsuit.
Schaefer and associates complete a topographical map of the Adirondacks.
The public votes against the Moose River dam, avoiding flooding of 1,500 acres of the Forest Preserve.
Apperson completes the transfer of Dome Island to the Nature Conservancy for protection.
Schaefer becomes vice president of the Association for the Protection of the Adirondacks, holding this position until his death.
Schaefer, Richard Pough, and Sharon Mauhs promote a conservation easement for Elk Lake. Construction of the Adirondack Northway, a highway connecting Albany to Canada that cuts through the Adirondack State Park, is approved.
Apperson is concerned with the Cooke-Sadler Bill. Schaefer begins a 7 year tenure in the Joint Legislative Committee on Natural Resources of the New York State Assembly.
Schaefer acquires the archives of the Association for the Protection of the Adirondacks and moves them to his Niskayuna home.
Apperson passes away on February 1. Apperson’s papers and belongings are bequeathed and transferred to the Forest Preserve Association of New York State.
The Wilderness Act is signed by President Lyndon Johnson on September 3, creating the National Wilderness Preservation System. Schaefer and other Niskayuna residents begin campaigning to save the Lisha Kill area in Niskayuna, NY.
Schaefer receives the Governor’s Award from the New York State Conservation Council.
Schaefer appointed as Advisor to the Study Commission on the Future of the Adirondacks by Gov. Rockefeller.
20 linear feet of Apperson’s papers are given to the Adirondack Research Center. Schaefer is named International Safari Conservationist of the Year.
The Adirondack Park Agency is created by Governor Nelson Rockefeller to perform long-term planning and oversee private development within the Park. Schaefer receives the Nature Conservancy Award from the Eastern New York chapter of the Nature Conservancy in recognition of his work in the Adirondacks.
Peter Van de Water organizes Citizens to Save the Adirondack Park to oppose a large second home development planned by Horizon Corporation in the towns of Colton and Clare.
The Adirondack Park Agency creates the State Land Master Plan, to cover the development of the state-owned Forest Preserve, and it is adopted by the New York State legislature in June. Paul Schaefer produces the documentary film "Of Rivers and Men." The Wild, Scenic, and Recreational Rivers Act is passed, categorizing and protecting rivers in the Adirondack Park. Paul Schaefer plays a key role in convincing both sportsmen and conservationists to support both plans.
The New York State legislature adopts the Land Use and Development Plan, developed by the Adirondack Park Agency to regulate private land use within the Adirondack Park.
Schaefer organizes the Couch-sa-chra-ga Association to publicize "Of Rivers and Men" and develop further films about the Adirondacks.
Schaefer joins the Transportation Committee for the 1980 Olympics. The Adirondack Research Center at Union College is founded. Schaefer receives an honorary doctorate from Union College and teaches a class in the history of the Adirondacks.
The XIII Olympic Winter Games are held in Lake Placid, New York. Schaefer releases The Adirondack: The Land Nobody Knows. The film wins a CINE Eagle Award.
Schaefer receives the Governor Mario Cuomo Conservation Award.
Schaefer receives the Chevron USA Conservation Award.
Defending the Wilderness: the Adirondack Writings of Paul Schaefer is published.
Schaefer receives the Alexander Calder National Conservation Award. Apperson is cited in the Upper Hudson Environmental Action Committee’s “Champions of Conservation” bookmark series. The Residents Committee to Protect the Adirondacks is formed.
Paul Schaefer receives an Oak Leaf Award from the Eastern New York Chapter of the Nature Conservancy in recognition of his work preserving the Lisha Kill Area. Schaefer publishes Adirondack Cabin Country.
Schaefer receives the Gov. Mario Cuomo Environmental Achievement Award.
Schaefer is cited in the Upper Hudson Environmental Action Committee’s “Champions of Conservation” bookmark series.
Schaefer passes away on July 13. Schaefer’s papers are given to the Adirondack Research Library.
Schaefer's Adirondack Explorations: Nature Writings of Verplanck Colvin is published posthumously.
Schaefer is listed by the Audubon Society among the 100 top 20th century conservationists.
The Association for the Protection of the Adirondacks purchases the Niskayuna estate of the late Paul Schaefer to establish the Center for the Forest Preserve. The Town of Niskayuna dedicates the Paul Schaefer Room in the Niskayuna Town Hall on September 13.
The Association for the Protection of the Adirondacks completes construction of the Center for the Forest Preserve addition to 897 St. David’s Lane.
The Association for the Protection of the Adirondacks and the Residents’ Committee to Protect the Adirondacks consolidate into Protect the Adirondacks!, or PROTECT.
Union College acquires the building complex on St. David's Lane to preserve and expand its use as an educational learning center, reaffirming the College's long connection to the Adirondacks. In an arrangement with PROTECT, the College assumes long term responsibility for managing the collections housed in the Adirondack Research Library at the complex.
Schaffer Library at Union College is awarded a Hidden Collections grant from the Council on Library and Information Resources for the “Grass Roots Activism and the American Wilderness: Pioneers in the Twentieth Century Adirondack Park Conservation Movement” project to process and catalog the John S. Apperson Papers and the Paul Schaefer Collection.
Work begins on the “Grass Roots Activism and the American Wilderness: Pioneers in the Twentieth Century Adirondack Park Conservation Movement” project.
“Grass Roots Activism and the American Wilderness: Pioneers in the Twentieth Century Adirondack Park Conservation Movement” is completed, resulting in the processing and description of both the Apperson and Schaefer collections, the digitization of over 500 selected items from the collections, and the creation of a contextual website. “Grass Roots Activism and the American Wilderness: Pioneers in the Twentieth Century Adirondack Park Conservation Movement” exhibit opens in Schaffer Library, Union College (May 12).