Whatever else we seek to do when we punish people, we seek to make them suffer. To intentionally make people suffer is, however, obviously a bad thing to do. Not surprisingly, then, for millennia we have struggled to find a way of explaining how punishment could be a good thing to do – i.e., how it could be justified. And for millennia two opposing families of justifications have been mired in what has become a tired and deadlocked debate. In this presentation, Leo Zaibert will be discussing his latest book, Rethinking Punishment, where he puts forth a new way of understanding punishment and the difficult process of justifying it. Zaibert’s novel approach involves taking seriously recent developments in moral philosophy that highlight the complexity of our moral emotions and of moral phenomena in general.