A numeral is a figure, letter, word or group of words expressing a number.

Arabic Numerals

Arabic numerals use the figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 0. Use Arabic forms unless Roman numerals are specifically required.

In most cases, numbers 10 and above should be represented numerically. When it is necessary to spell out large numbers, use a hyphen to connect a word ending in “y” to another word; do not use commas or the conjunction and to separate words that are part of the same number: twenty-one; one hundred forty-three; one thousand one hundred fifty-five; one million two hundred seventy-six thousand five hundred eighty-seven.

Spell out a numeral at the beginning of a sentence. If it is too awkward to spell it out, rewrite the sentence. One exception to this rule is a numeral that identifies a calendar year.

  • Five hundred students graduated in the fall.
  • 1967 was a year that began with a lot of snow.

Spell out casual references.

  • Examples: Thanks a million! But a thousand times no!
  • He walked a quarter of a mile.

When referencing proper names, use words or numerals according to an organization’s practice, such as 20th Century Fox.

For ordinal numbers (first, second, tenth, 1st, 2nd, 10th, etc.), spell out first through ninth when they indicate sequence in time or location such as first base, the First Amendment, or he was first in line. Starting with 10th, use figures.

Use 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. when the sequence has been assigned in forming names, including geographic, military and political designations such as 1st Ward, 7th Fleet or 1st Sgt.

For cardinal numbers, in most cases, spell out whole numbers below 10 and use figures for 10 and above.

Roman Numerals

Roman numerals use the letters I, V, X, L, C, D and M. Use Roman numerals for wars and to show personal sequence for animals and people: World War II, King George VI, etc. See Family Lineage under Abbreviations for more information.

In Roman numerals, the capital letter I equals 1, V equals 5, X equals 10, L equals 50, C equals 100, D equals 500 and M equals 1,000. Do not use M to mean million as some publications sometimes do.

Other numbers are formed from these by adding or subtracting as follows:

The value of a letter following another of the same or greater value is added: III equals 3.

The value of a letter preceding one of greater value is subtracted: IV equals 4.


Telephone Numbers

In all references, use parentheses around the area code. This is based on a format that telephone companies have agreed upon for domestic and international communications.

For numbers within the United States, the parentheses around the area code should be followed by a space, the three-digit prefix, a hyphen and then the remaining four digits of the phone number.

  • (518) 388-6000

Since direct telephone numbers are available to reach departments, offices and individual faculty, staff and students at the College, these should be used whenever possible instead of the College’s main telephone number (518) 388-6000 along with the appropriate telephone extension.

For internal publications, extensions alone may be used. When extension numbers are given, the word extension may be capitalized and abbreviated when accompanied by the specific number.

  • The Senior Director of Communications and Marketing may be reached at Ext. 6285.